Osteoporosis is the bone condition characterised by low bone mass, which is associated with with reduced bone strength and an increased risk of fractures. Osteoporosis occurs most commonly in postmenopausal women. Low bone mass may be related to either inadequate peak bone mass acquisition and/or ongoing bone loss. 

Risk factors for osteoporosis (causing bone loss):

  • Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism)
  • Advanced age
  • Previous fracture
  • Long term glucocorticoid therapy
  • Low body weight (less than 58kg)
  • Family history of hip fracture
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Excessive alcohol intake
  • Drop in estrogen (late onset of menstrual periods, absent or infrequent periods and premature early menopause before age of 45)
  • Pituitary gland failure (hypopituitarism)
  • Chronic illness such as chronic liver disease, chronic kidney disease, coeliac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Low Vit D
  • Low Calcium intake
  • Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia