Hay fever is a common condition also known as Allergic rhinitis. It is an allergic condition that affects nose and eyes.


  • sneezing
  • a runny or stuffy nose
  • itchy ears, nose and throat
  • red, itchy or watery eyes
  • headahes

 Postnasal drip, cough, irritability and fatigue are other common symptoms.

Risk factors for hay fever:

  • Family history of atopy (i.e genetic susceptibility to develop allergic diseases)
  • Male sex
  • Birth during the pollen season
  • First born status
  • Early use of antibiotics
  • Maternal smoking exposure in the first year of life
  • Exposure to indoor allergens, such as dust mite allergen

Acne is one of the common skin condition affecting teenage years. Acne tends to resolve in the third decade of life but some can persist until 40 years old. The exact mechanisms of causing Acne are not fully understood. It is thought to be caused by familial tendency, exogenous and endogenous hormones, Propionibacterium acnes (acne bacteria), inflammation, distension and occlusion of hair follicles.

Flares of Acne are triggered by:

  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • Certain medications such as steroids, hormones, anticonvulsants and etc
  • Applications of occlusive comestics
  • High environmental humidity
  • Diet high in dairy products and high glycaemic foods

Acne most commonly affects those areas of the body that have the largest, hormonally-responsive sebaceous glands, including the face, neck, chest, upper back and upper arms. Features include open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), inflammed papules and pustules. In severe Acne, scarring and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation can occur, which can be greatly distressing for patients.

Coeliac disease is also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy and nontropical sprue which affects approximately one in 70 Australians. Coeliac disease usually present between the ages of 10 and 40 years. Children with life-threatening malabsorption from coeliac disease are rarer nowadays due to longer periods of breast-feeding and the later introduction of gluten in the infant diet. Foods thats contain gluten caused damage to lining of small intestine and impair absorption of nutrients. This leads to malnutrition, osteoporosis, depression, infertility, iron deficiency anaemia and small increased risk of lymphoma of bowel. It also can cause skin rash such as dermatitis herpertiformis. Coeliac disease is closely associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus and polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type III (autoimmune thyroiditis).

Foods that contain gluten are as follows:

  • Barley
  • Rye
  • Oats - consumption should be limited to 50 to 60g/day in mild disease or those in remission. Patients with severe coeliac disease should avoid oats altogether
  • Wheat

 Many patients with coeliac disease can have secondary lactose intolerance.